A special thank you goes to Barbara Andresen
contributing, typing and submitting this gazeteer.
Following is taken from the 1860 Gazeteer of the State of New York by J. H. French, published by R. Pearsall Smith, Syracuse, New York, fifth edition. pg. 461-462
Town of Annsville, Oneida County, New York,
and villages within its boundary
ANNSVILLE -- [Named from the wife of J. W. Bloomfield, the first settler.] was formed from Lee, Florence, Camden, and Vienna, April 12, 1823. It lies on the N. border of the co., W. of the center. Its surface is broken with ridges or swells, running E. and W., gradually increasing in height toweard the N. There appear to have been at some period three small lakes in the town, two of which have broken through their barriers and left fine, fertile valleys. The E. branch of Fish Creek [Called by the Indians Te-ge-ro-ken, "between the mouths." A branch of the creek was called A-on-ta-gillon. "Creek at point of rocks." In the neighborhood of Fall Creek are several ravines with very picturesque scenery.] forms a part of the E. boundary, and flows through the S.E. part; and the W. branch of the same stream forms a part of the S. boundary. Several small streams are tributaries of the E. branch, the principal of which are Furnace and Fall Creeks. On the latter near its mouth, are three falls, of 14, 20, and 60 ft. respectively. The soil is clayey in the S., and sandy, gravelly, and stony in the other parts.
GLENMORE, (p.v.,) near the center, contains 2 sawmills, 1 gristmill, and 15 houses.
TABERG, [Named from an iron-mining town in Sweden. The Oneida Glass and Iron Manufacturing Co. began operations here in 1809. In 1811 a blast furnace was erected. Formerly hollow ware was extensively made; but at present pig iron is the chief product.] (p.v.,) in the S. part, contains 2 churches 3 sawmills, a gristmill, a furnace, tannery, several small manufactories, and 40 houses.
BLOSSVALE is a p.o. in the S. part.
The first settlement was commenced in 1793, [The first settlement was made at Taberg. Among the early settlers were Elias Brewster, Adam P. Campbell, Nicholas Armstrong, and Squire Fairservice.] by John W. Blossfield, from N. J. The census reports 4 churches in town. [ Presbyterian, Methodist Episcopal, Baptist, and Roman Catholic.]
AUGUSTA -- [This town is included in the S. part of the tract leased from the Oneidas in 1794 to Peter Smith. The lease is said to have been for 999 years. The tract was divided into 4 allotments, the first of which lies wholly within this town. The lease was assumed by the State in 1795-97, and patents were granted to settlers, Smith retaining 6 lots in the town as part payment for his lease. The first settlers took their lands as tenants under Smith. Part of the Oneida Reservation, purchased in 1795 and sold at auction in 1797, is included in the N. part of the town.] was formed from Whitestown, March 15, 1798. A part of Vernon was taken off in 1802, and a part of Stockbridge (Madison co.) in 1836.
It lies on the W. border of the co., S. of the center. Its surface is a rolling upland. Two ranges of hills extend N. and S. through the town on opposite sides of Skanandoa Creek, affording limestone of excellent quality for lime and building purposes. Oriskany Creek flows through the extreme S.E. corner, and Skanandoa Creek flows N. through near the center. The soil is a fertile, clayey and sandy loam.
AUGUSTA, (p.v.,) near the center, contains 2 churches and 100 inhabitants.
KNOX CORNERS, (p.v.,) N.W. of the center, contains a church and 200 inhabitants.
ORISKANY FALLS, (p.v.,) in the S.E. corner, contains a church, a saw and grist mill, machine shop, distillery, and 711 inhabitants.
The first settlement was made by _____ Gunn, in 1793. [Among the early settlers were Benjamin Warren, David Morton, John Alden, Ichabod Stafford, Joseph and Abraham Forbes, Isaac and Benjamin Allen, Amos Parker, Thos. Cassaty, Ozias and Lemuel Hart, James Reynolds, Abel Prior, Thomas Spafford, Ezen Saxton, Abiel Lindsey, and Francis O'Toole. The first birth was that of Peter Smith Gunn; the first marriage, that of Daniel Hart and Catharine Putnam; and the first death, that of Eleazer Putnam, in 1795. T. Cassaty built the first sawmill, in 1795, at Oriskany Falls. A gristmill was built the next year.]
The first religious services were held at the house of _____Fairbanks, in 1794. [The census reports 5 churches in town; 2 Congregational, Methodist Episcopal, Baptist, and Union.]
AVA -- [Named from a city in Burmah.] was formed from Boonville, May 12, 1846. It is the central town on the N. border of the co. Its surface is a moderately uneven upland, 700 to 1,000 ft. above the Rome level. It is drained by Fish Creek, the E. and W. branches of the Mohawk, Point Rock, and Blue Brooks. Several small sulphur springs have been found in town. The soil is a gravelly loam.
AVA CORNERS, (Ave, p.o.,) W. of the center contains 20 houses.
The first settlement was commenced by Ebenezer Harper, in 1798. [Zephaniah and Abner Wood settled in town about 1800. Messers. Barnard, Fanning, Adams, Mitchell, Beck, and Tiffany were early settlers. Salmon Bates kept the first inn, in 1800. Benj. Jones built the first sawmill, in 1801, -- at which time there were only 9 other inhabitants in town. The road cut through from Fort Stanwix to the French settlement on Black River, toward the close of the last century, led through this town; and traces of it may still be seen. Several tributaries of Black River take their rise in swamps in the N. E. part of the town.] A Friends meeting house is the only place of worship in town.
BOONVILLE -- [Named from Gerrit Boon, agent of the Holland Land Co., who made the first settlement. In early times it was called "Boon's Upper Settlement."] was formed from Leyden, (Lewis co.,) March 28, 1805. Ava was taken off in 1846. It lies on the N. border of the co., E. of the center. Its surface is hilly, broken upland 800 to 1,000 ft. above the canal at Rome. Black River flows through the N.E. part, and Lansing Kil rises near the center and flows S. to the Mohawk. Its soil is clayey loam, in many places thickly covered with boulders and often inclining to sand. Near the village are immense deposits of drift. Its E. border extends into the great forest, and presents the meager, sandy soil and naked rocks peculiar to that region. There is a gas spring one and a half mile W. of the village, and a sulphur spring one and a half miles south. The later has acquired some local celebrity.
BOONVILLE, (p.v.,) in the N.W. part, was incorp. in 1855. It contains 3 churches, a printing office, several manufactories, and 1,000 inhabitants. It is the present N. terminus of the Black River & Utica R.R. It is on the summit level of the Black River Canal, and has a large trade with the country N., W., and E.
ALDER CREEK, (p.v.,) in the S.E. part, contains a church and 20 houses.
FOREST PORT, (p.v.,) near the S.E. corner, on the line of Remsen, contains 20 houses.
HAWKINSVILLE, (p.v.,) N.W. of the center, contains a saw and grist mill, chair factory, carding mill, and 339 inhabitants.
HURLBUTVILLE is a p.o.
The first settlement commenced in 1795. [Andrew Edmunds came on in 1795 as an agent of the Holland Land Co. with several men, built a sawmill, and commenced a gristmill, which was finished the next year. Luke Fisher and son, Phineas, Martin, and Silas Southwell, Asahel and Ezekiel Porter, Aaron Willard, Jacob Springer, Jephtha King, and Hezekiah Jones came in 1796. Lemuel Hough and Daniel Pitcher were early settlers. The first birth was that of a daughter of Jacob Springer; and the first marriage, that of Henry Evans and Elizabeth Edmunds. The first store and inn were opened by the agents of the company.]
The first church was formed in 1805. [Rev. Daniel Smith was the first minister. There are now 5 churches in town; Presbyterian, Methodist Episcopal, Baptist, Union, and Roman Catholic.]
BRIDGEWATER -- [The "Line of Property," run in accordance with a treaty of 1718, passed through this town. --Jones's Annals, p.123.] was formed from Sangerfield, March 24, 1797. It is the S.E. corner town of the co. Its surface is uneven. The valley of the W. branch of the Unadilla and its tributaries, locally known as "Bridgewater Flats," in the N., is about a mile wide, but decreases to about half that width in the S. [The excavation which forms the valley has been filled to an immense depth with drift; and rock cannot be found within a great distance below the surface. Cedar swamps extend along several of the streams.] The hills rise, on the E. and W. borders, 300 to 500 ft. above the valley, their declivities being often steep. The W. branch of the Unadilla [Called also Ti-a-na-da-ra. --Jones's Annals, p.122] flows S. through the town. The soil in the E. is a gravelly loam, and in the W. clay. Stone is quarried in the N.E. part.
BRIDGEWATER, (p.v.,) in the S. part, contains 3 churches, the Bridgewater Academy, and 306 inhabitants.
NORTH BRIDGEWATER (p.v.,) contains 15 houses.
BABCOCK HILL (p.o.) is a hamlet.
The first settlement was commenced in 1788,
by Joseph Farwell. [Among the early settlers were Ezra Parker, Ephraim
and Nathan Waldo, _____Lyman, and Jesse, Joel, and Abner Ives. Ezra
Parker kept the first inn; Major Farwell built the first sawmill; and _____Thomas
the first gristmill. This is the smallest and least populous town
in the co.] There are 3 churches in town; Congregational, Baptist,
CAMDEN -- was formed from Mexico, (Oswego co.,) March 15, 1799. Florence was taken off in 1805, Vienna in 1807, and a part of Annsville in 1823. It lies upon the W. border of the co., near the N.W. corner. Its surface is rolling, gradually rising toward the N., where it is broken by hills whose summits are several hundred feet above Oneida Lake. The W. branch of Fish Creek flows diagonally through the town toward the S.E. Mad River from the N. unites with it near Camden Village; and Little River, a tributary, forms part of the S. boundary. The soil is a sandy loam, in some places gravelly and stony, but generally well adapted to grazing.
CAMDEN, (p.v.,) in the E. part, was incorp. in 1834. It contains 3 churches, saw and grist mills, a sash and blind manufactory, pump factory, 2 tanneries, a cloth manufactory, and 862 inhabitants.
WEST CAMDEN, (p.v.,) near the N.W. corner, contains 20 houses.
HILLSBOROUGH, (p.o.,) in the S. part, is a hamlet.
The first settlement commenced near the close of the last century. [Henry Williams was the first permanent settler, in 1796-97. Jesse Curtis had previously built a sawmill; but he did not settle in town until some time after. Levi Matthews, Daniel Parker, Seth and Joel Dunbar, Aaron Matthews, Samuel Wood, Thos. Comstock, Elihu Curtis, Samuel Royce, Noah and Andew Tuttle, Benjamin Barnes, sr. and jr., Philip Barnes, Israel Stoddard, and _____ Carrier were early settlers. The first birth was that of Noah P. Tuttle; the first marriage, that of Elihu Curtis and Anna Northrop; and the first deaths were those of Mrs. Bacon and a child, who were drowned in crossing Mad River in a canoe. Elihu Curtis kept the first inn, in 1799; and Timothy W. Wood the first store, about the same time.]
The first religious society was formed Feb.
19, 1798, by Rev. Eliphalet Steele. [There are now 5 churches in town;
Methodist Episcopal, Weslyan Methodist, Protestant E., Congregational,
and Roman Catholic.] The church received from the heirs of John Murray
an endowment in lands yielding a revenue of $112.
DEERFIELD -- was formed from Schuyler, (Herkimer co.,) March 15, 1798. Marcy was taken off in 1832. It lies near the center of the E. border of the co. Its surface is mostly a high plateau, 600 to 1,000 ft. above the Mohawk, forming the N. continuation of the Hassenclever Mts. of Herkimer co. A broad intervale, partly overflowed in high water, extends along the Mohawk opposite Utica; and on the N.E. the surface descends abruptly to the creek. The Mohawk flows along the S.W. border of the town, and West Canada Creek along the N.E. border. The soil on the flats is a deep, rich, alluvial loam, and on the hills a slaty and gravelly loam.
DEERFIELD CORNERS, (Deerfield p.o.,) in the S. part, contains 2 churches 3 carriage shops, and 50 houses. A thickly settled suburb of Utica extends toward the village.
NORTH GAGE, (p.o.,) in the N. part is a hamlet.
The first settlement was commenced in 1773. [George G. Weaver, Capt. Mark Damoth, and Christian Real settled at the Corners in 1773. In 1776, hearing that a band of tories and Indians were planning a descent upon the settlement, they retreated to Little Stone Arabia. In 1784, they returned, and about the same time Peter, Nicholas, and George Weaver, George Damoth, Nicholas and Philip Harter, came in. During the first 15 or 20 years the settlements did not extend to the N. part of the town. The Cox and Coffin families were the first in that part.]
The first religious services were held in
1798, by Rev. _____ Eddy. There are 4 churches in town. [Baptist,
Calvin Methodist, Union, and Roman Catholic.]
FLORENCE -- [Named from the city of Florence, in Italy.] was formed from Camden, Feb. 16, 1805. A part of Annsville was taken off in 1823. It is the N.W. corner town of the co. Its surface is rolling, and 250 to 300 ft. above the Rome level. Mad River flows S.E. through the town. The soil is stony and light, and is underlaid by the Hudson River shales. A portion of the town is still covered by forests, which extend N. to near Jefferson co.
FLORENCE, (p.v.,) N. of the center, contains 3 churches, 3 sawmills, a gristmill, tannery, and 40 houses.
EMPEYVILLE, in the E. part, contains a church and 20 houses.
EAST FLORENCE (p.o.) and FLORENCE HILL are hamlets.
The first settlement commenced in 1801 by Amos Woodworth. [The first settlement commenced under the auspices of William Henderson, owner of Township 4 of Scriba's Patent. He gave Amos Woodworth, John Spinning, and _____ Turner 50 acres each, to commence a settlement. Azariah Orton, _____ Crawford and his son Clark, Norman Waugh, Benoni and Ebenezer Barlow, Ambrose Curtis, Ephraim Wright, Joseph Olcott, and Benj. Young came soon after. Several of the latter settled at Florence Hill. Nathan Thompson kept the first inn.]
The first religious society (Cong.) was formed Dec. 16, 1816; Rev. Samuel Sweezey was the first settled minister. [There are 5 churches in town; 2 Methodist Episcopal, 2 Union, and Baptist.]
FLOYD -- [Named from Gen. William Floyd, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, who purchased a part of Fonda's Patent and removed to this co. in 1803. -- Jones's Annals of Oneida Co., pp. 155, 705.] was formed from Steuben, March 4, 1796. It lies in the interior, E. of the center of the co. Its surface is rolling, gradually rising to the N. border, where it attains an elevation of 200 to 300 ft. above the Mohawk. Nine Mile Creek [Called by the Indians Te-ya-nun-soke, "a beech tree standing."] flows through a small portion of the S.E. part. The soil is of good quality and well adapted to grain and grass.
FLOYD CORNERS (Floyd p.o.) contains a church and 20 houses.
The first settlement commenced about 1799, by Capt. Benjamin Pike. [Among the early settlers were Stephen Moulton, William and Nathaniel Allen, James Chase, Elisha Lake, _____ Howard, Hope Smith, David Bryan, Samuel Denison, James Bartlett, _____ Putney, Jarvis Pike, Capt. Nathan Townsend, and Thomas Bacon -- mostly from Conn. The first death was that of _____ Foster; the second that of Nathan Thompson, who was killed by a falling tree.]
There are 4 churches in town; Congregational,
Welsh Methodist, Roman Catholic, and Union. [The plan of ownership of the
union church is peculiar. The seats are owned and transferred by
purchase, and the owners meet on the first Monday in each year and vote
what denomination shall occupy the house the ensuing year.]
KIRKLAND -- [Named from the Rev. Samuel Kirkland, an early missionary among the Oneida Indians, who settled in the county in 1792. He was the principal founder of an academy since merged in Hamilton College. He died in 1808; and a monument was erected to his memory by the Northern Missionary Society.] was formed from Paris, April 13, 1827. Marshall was taken off in 1829, a part was annexed to New Hartford in 1834, and a part of Paris was annexed in 1839. It lies in the interior S. of the center of the co.
Its surface is a hilly upland, divided into two general ridges by the valley of Oriskany Creek. The hills are 200 to 500 ft. high, and the declivities are generally steep. Oriskany Creek flows N.E. through near the center. The soil is a rich, calcareous loam. Near Clinton Village are quarries of good building stone. Iron ore is found; and several thousant tons are annually shipped by the Chenango Canal, to Constantia, Taberg, and Penn. Great attention is paid to fruit growing, and this town excels every other town in the co. in the amount of fruit raised. The town derives its greatest interest from its extensive educcational institutions, which entitle it to the Literary Emporium of Oneida co.
CLINTON (p.v.,) was incorp. April 12, 1843. [Hamilton Oneida Academy was incorp. by the Regents, Jan 31, 1793, mainly through the exertions of the Rev. Samuel Kirkland. In 1794 a commodious building was erected, the corner stone of which was laid with much ceremony by Baron Steuben. The school was opened the same year under the Rev. John Niles, whose successors were Rev. Robert Porter, Seth Norton, and Rev. James Robbbins. The success of this academy was highly gratifying to its friends; and the rapid development of Central New York suggested the necessity of more ample facilities for instruction and an extension of its course of study.
Clinton and Fairfield became active competitors for the honors of a college, and charters of similar character and conditions were granted to each, under the names of Hamilton and Clinton Colleges respectively. By a compromise between the friends of the rival locations, the latter institution was never organized. Clinton went on with its literary college, and employed the most active person in the Fairfield enterprise as its agent; while Fairfield organized a medical college.
Hamilton College was chartered May 26, 1812, and went into operation soon after, under the presidency of the Rev. Azel Backus. His successors have been Henry Davis, in 1817; Sereno E. Dwight, in 1833; Joseph Penny, in 1835; Simeon North, in 1839; and Samuel Ware Fisher, in 1858. The college is chiefly under the influence of the New School Presbyterian and Congregational Churches.
From 1819 to 1832, dissensions between the Trustees and President seriously retarded the prosperity of the Institution; and during the same period insubordination among the students was of frequent occurrence. From 1838 to 1846 the college received $3,000 annually from the State; but the present Constitution cut it off from the receipt of a balance previously appropriated, and the grant has not been since continued.
The Trustees many years since adopted the custom of admitting students unable to pay tuition fees; and from incautious extension, this usage became an abuse that showed itself upon the treasurer's books. The receipts from tuition became only a quarter as great as previously, while the catalogue indicated by its numbers an increasing prosperity.
It was found more difficult to abandon this practice than it had been to adopt it; and it is still continued to as great an extent as the means of the institution will justify. These causes have embarrassed the finances of the college; but efforts are about being made to relieve it from debt. The sum of $50,000 was granted by the State, June 19, 1812, to aid in founding the college. Wm. H. Maynard, of Utica, in 1832 gave $20,000 to endow a professorship of law; and S. Newton Dexter, of Whitesboro, in 1836 gave his personal obligations for $15,000 to endow a professorship of the Greek and Latin languages. The observatory was built in 1854, at a cost of $5,000 besides the instruments, which have cost more than twice that sum.]
Hamilton College is located upon a hill overloooking the Oriskany Valley. Its buildings consist of Dexter Hall, or North College; Kirkland Hall, or Middle College; Hamilton Hall, or South College; a chapel, laboratory, and an observatory. The course of study embraces a collegiate and a law department. A grammar school, under a separate board of trustees, is connected as a preparatory department. The college libraries contain about 10,000 volumes, and the cabinet of natural history contains about as many specimens. The village also contains 5 churches, 2 newspaper offices, the Clinton Liberal Institute, a grammar, a boarding, and a high school, and a few manufacories. Population 1,174.
[The Clinton Liberal Institute was founded
in 1832; it is under the patronage of the Universalist demonination, and
has a male and a female department. The building for the former is
of stone, 96 by 52 feet, 4 stories above the basement, and has accomodations
for 100 students. The female department is an elegant structure,
144 by 60 ft., 2 stories high above the basement, and has an average attendance
of 50 pupils. A small monthly paper, named the "Leaf Bud," "Summer
Leaves," "Autumn Leaves," or "Wintergreen," according to the season, is
published at this institution. Home Cottage Seminary is a private
institution, established in 1854 as a ladies' seminary, by Miss L. M. Baker.
The edifice is 60 by 112 ft., and cost -- including 8 acres of land --
$20,000. It has been united with another ladies' school under Miss
A. Chipman, and is very properous. An issue styled the "Home Cottage
Quarterly," is published by the pupils. This seminary forms the female
department of the grammar school. The Clinton High School, for males
only, was established May, 1858, by Rev. B. W. Dwight and D. A. Holbrook.
It is located a half mile from the village, cost $18,000, and has accommodations
for 80 students.]
Clinton founded 1787 Whitestown Montgomery
Clinton 1792 Paris Herkimer
Clinton 1795 Paris Oneida
Clinton 1827 Kirkland Oneida
Clinton incorporated 1843 Kirkland Oneida
Clinton now 2000 Kirkland Oneida
Clinton was founded in 1787 by Moses Foot and seven others, mostly from Plymouth, Connecticut. When founded it was in the Town of Whitestown, Montgomery County and as towns and counties changed by division of territory, it has, since 1827, been in the Town of Kirkland, Oneida County. It was named after George Clinton, the first governor of New York State and became an incorporated village in 1843.
Thr Town of Kirkland was formed in 1827
from the Town of Paris, Oneida County. In addition to the Village of Clinton;
its largest municipality, it also includes within its boundaries, the hamlets
of Franklin Springs, Kirkland and Clark Mills. It was named to honor the
Rev. Samuel Kirkland, Missionary to the Oneida Indians.
FRANKLIN, near the center, contains the Franklin Iron Works and 35 houses. [The Franklin Iron Works manufactures 4,000 tons of pig iron annually, from ore obtained in the immediate vicinity. It gives employment to 100 men, and turns out work to the amount of $100,000 annually.]
CLARKS MILLS, [Clarks Mills manufacture brown sheeting, and are funished with 128 looms. The proprietors also have a manufactory of cotton cord, rope, and batting, and a gristmill and a sawmill.] in the N. corner, is a manufacturing village, and contains a cotton factory, grist and saw mill, and 40 houses.
The first settlement commenced in 1787, by 8 families. [Moses Foot, his three sons Bronson, Luther, and Ira, and his son-in-law, Barnabas Pond, were of this number. Levi Shearman, Solomon Hovey, Ludin Blodget, Timothy Tuttle, Samuel Hubbard, Randall Lewis, Cordial Storrs, John Bullen, and Capt. Cassey were early settlers. Mrs. S. Hovey was the first white woman who moved into town. The first child born was Clinton Foot; the first marriage was that of Roger Leveret and Elizabeth Cheseborough; and the first death was that of Mrs. Merah Tuttle. Skenandoah, an Oneida chief, died in this town, March 11, 1816, aged 110 years. Capt. Cassey built the first gristmill, in 1787, and a sawmill the next year. The village was early named from Gov. Clinton; and the vicinity was known by the Indians as Ka-de-wis-day.]
Religious services were first held in the
cabin of Capt. Foot. [There are 5 churches in town; 2 Congregational,
Baptist, Roman Catholic, and Union.]
LEE -- [Named from Lee, Mass., whence some of the early settlers came.] was formed from Western, April 3, 1811. A part of Annsville was taken off in 1823. It lies in the interior, N. of the center of the co. Its surface is rolling or moderately hilly, gradually rising from the lowlands in the S. to an elevation of 500 to 800 ft. above the canal at Rome. The W. branch of the Mohawk flows through the N.E. corner, and Fish Creek forms a part of the S. boundary. The soil is a clayey, sandy, and gravelly loam, and in some localities very stony.
LEE CENTER (p.v.) contains a church, saw and grist mill, tannery, and 40 houses.
DELTA, (p.v.,) in the S.E. corner, on the line of Western, contains a foundery, tannery, and 228 inhabitants.
WEST BRANCH, (p.v.,) in the N.E. corner, contains a saw and grist mill and 20 houses.
STOKES, (p.o.) is a hamlet. [Sometimes called "Nisbets Corners," and "Lee Corners."]
The first settlement commenced in 1790, at Delta, by Stephen and Reuben Sheldon. [Among the early settlers were David Smith, John and Benj. Spinning, Stephen and Nicholas Salisbury, Nathan Barlow, William Taft, Daniel and Seth Miller, Frederic Sprague, _____ Hall, Jas. Young, Charles Gifford, Elisha Parke, and _____ Potter. The first birth was that of Fenner Sheldon, in 1791; the first marriage, that of Daniel Miller and Amy Taft; the first death, that of Job Kaird, in 1798. David Smith built the first sawmill, at Delta, and Gen. Floyd the first gristmill, in 1796.]
The first religious society (Cong.) was formed
in 1797, under Rev. James Southworth. [There are 4 churches in town;
2 Methodist Episcopal, Friends, and Union.]
MARCY -- [Named from William L. Marcy, since Governor of the State] was formed from Deerfield, March 30, 1832. It lies on the N. bank of the Mohawk, E. of the center of the co. Its surface is rolling; a wide intervale borders upon the river, from which rises an irregular table-land 300 to 500 ft. above the valley. Nine Mile Creek flows through the w. corner. The soil on the upland is a rich sandy and gravelly loam, and on the flats an alluvial deposit, which is annually increased by the spring floods.
STITTSVILLE, (p.v.,) on the line of Trenton, contains a church, saw and grist mill, cotton factory, and 40 houses.
MARCY is a p.o. The first settlement
commenced in 1793, by John Wilson. [James, Thos., Isaac, and Jacob Wilson
and ____ Tull were early settlers. The first death was that of John
Wilson, in the fall of 1793. _____ Camp kept the first inn, about
1810; and John F. Allen built the first mill, about 1825.] The census
reports 6 churches in town. [2 Congregational, 2 Baptist, Methodist
Episcopal, and Calvanist Methodist.]
MARSHALL -- was formed from Kirkland, Feb. 21, 1829. It lies in the s. part of the co., the S.W. corner bordering on Madison co. The surface is a hilly upland, the hills rising 200 to 300 ft. above the valleys. Oriskany Creek flows N.E. through the w. part. The soil is a fertile, sandy loam.
DEANSVILLE, [Named from Thos. Dean, long an agent of the Brothertown Indians.] (p.v.,) on the N. border, contains 2 churches, an academy, and 185 inhabitants.
HANOVER, (Marshall p.o.,) near the center, contains a church and 15 houses.
FORGE HOLLOW contains a church, a forge, and 35 houses.
The first white settlement was commenced in 1793, by David Barton. [The Brothertown Indians were settled previous to the Revolution on a reservation in this town and Kirkland given them by the Oneidas. They were remnants of New England, Hudson River, and Long Island Indians, who were collected toward the close of the Colonial period, and numbered, when first removed hither, about 400 souls. Coming from many different stocks, they adopted the English language and some of the arts of civilized life. They were mostly scattered during the war, but afterward returned, and many of them became thrifty farmers; but the greater part acquired the vices of the whites, and a part of them sold out and went to Green Bay. In 1850 the last of the tribe bade adieu to their homes and moved West. Among the early white settlers were Warren Williams, Hezekiah Eastman, Capt. Simeon Hubbard, and Levi Baker. The first birth was that of Col. Lester Baker.]
The first church (Cong.) was formed in 1797.
[It was called the Hanover Society; and their edifice, after standing 40
years, was rebuilt in 1841. There are now 4 churches in town; 2 Congregational,
Methodist Episcopal, and Univ.]
PARIS -- [Named by the inhabitants in acknowledgment of the kindness of Isaac Paris, a merchant of Fort Plain, who, in the year of scarcity, 1789, supplied them with Virginia corn on a liberal credit, and finally accepted payment in such produce as they were enabled to supply.] was formed from Whitestown, April 10, 1792. Brookfield, Hamilton, and a part of Cazenovia, (Madison co.,) Sherburne, (Chenango co.,) and Sangerfield, were taken off in 1795, and Kirkland in 1827. A part of Kirkland was annexed in 1839. It lies on the E. border, near the S.E. corner of the co. Its surface is hilly upland, broken by the valley of Sauquoit Creek. The hills bordering the valley are 200 to 400 ft. high, and their declivities are generally steep. Sauquoit Creek flows N. through the town, E. of the center. The soil is a sandy, calcareous loam.
EAST SAUQUOIT and WEST SAUQUOIT, (Sauquoit p.o.,) contiguous villages on opposite sides of Sauquoit Creek, contain 2 churches, extensive cotton factories, [The "Quaker Woolen Factory," established in 1812. In 1827 it commenced the manufacture of cotton, and now employs 100 hands, runs 110 looms, and can make 3,000 yards per day. The same Co. have another mill, that employs 50 hands and runs 60 looms.] 2 paper mills in the immediate vicinity, [These mills employ 30 hands, and make about 1 and a half tons of printing paper daily.] 2 sawmills, a gristmill, a tannery, and 690 inhabitants.
CLAYVILLE, (p.v.,) near the center, contains a church, 2 furnaces, an agricultural implement manufactory, [The manufacture of scythes was commenced in 1834. The business has since been largely increased; and at present about $200,000 is invested in the works. Scythes, hoes, forks, and other farming tools are extensively manufactured.] extensive woolen mills, [The woolen mills were started in 1843. They manufacture broadcloths and blankets, and employ 80 hands.] and 817 inhabitants.
CASSVILLE, (p.v.,) near the s. border, contains a church, gristmill, tub factory, and 40 houses.
PARIS HILL, (Paris p.o.,) in the w. part, a church and 30 houses.
HOLMAN CITY, in the E. part, a furnace, a whiffletree iron manufactory, and 12 houses.
The first settlement commenced in 1789.
[The first settlement was made by Capt. Rice. Among the early settlers
were Benj'n Barnes and his son Benjamin, John Humarton, Stephen Barnet,
Aaron Adams, Abiel Simmons, Phineas Kellogg, John and Sylvester Butler,
Asa Shepard, Kirkland Griffin, and Benjamin Merrill. The first death
was that of William Swan, in 1790. Abner Bacon kept the first inn,
and James Orton the first store, in 1802.] The first church (Cong.)
was formed in 1791, by Rev. Jonathan Edwards; Rev. Eliphalet Steele was
the first pastor. There are now 8 churches in town. [2 Methodist
Episcopal, 2 Protestant E., 2 Congregational, Baptist, and Presbyterian.]
REMSEN -- [Named from Henry Remsen, Patentee of Remsenburgh. The town embraces most of Remsenburgh Patent, and portions of Easton's Woodhull's, Service's, and other tracts.] was formed from Norway, (Herkimer co.,) March 15, 1798. A part of Steuben was annexed in 1809. It is the N.E. corner town of the co. Its surface is an elevated upland, broken by hills and ridges and with a mean elevation of 1,200 to 2,000 ft. above tide. Black River and its tributaries drain the central and N. parts; and West Canada Creek forms a small part of the S.E. boundary. Otter, Long, and White Lakes are in the N. part. The soil is generally a light sandy loam. A large part of the town is still covered by the primitive forests forming a portion of the great Northern Wilderness.
REMSEN, (p.v.,) a station on the B. R. & U. R. R., in the S.W. corner, contains a church, furnace, steam mill, and 510 inhabitants.
FOREST PORT, (p.v.,) on the line of Boonville, contains 20 houses.
PORT WOODHULL is a hamlet.
The first settlement commenced in 1792, by Barnabas Mitchell. [Among the early settlers were John Bomer, Nath'l Rockwood, Bettis Le Clerc, Perez Farr, and Jonah Dayton, in 1793. In 1808, David Mound, John Gas, Griffith I. Jones, John Owens, and Hugh Hughes, Welsh immigrants, settled, and were soon followed by a large immigration of their countrymen. This town contains more natives of Wales than any other town in the State; and, including their children of American birth, the Welsh number more than half the population. The first birth was that of Polly Mitchell; and the first death, that of Capt. Peck. Broughton White kept the first store, in 1803.]
There are 12 churches in town.
[5 Calvin Methodist, 3 Congregational, 2 Methodist Episcopal, and
ROME -- was formed from Steuben, March 4, 1796. It lies upon the Mohawk, a little W. of the center of the co. Its surface is level, and some portion of the W. part is low and marshy. The Mohawk flows S.E. through the E. part, and Wood Creek flows W. through the N.W. part. [Between the Mohawk and Wood Creek was a portage of about 1 mil in length over level ground. Early in the last century propositions were made to build a road across this point; and in 1796 the Western Inland Navigation Co. constructed a canal between the two streams, and the route speedily became the great thoroughfare of travel. This canal was most of the way on the line of the present Erie Canal, through the village. The Indians called the place De-o-wain-sta, "a carrying place for canoes." Wood Creek was called Ka-ne-go-dick. The old canal was constructed under the superintendence of Peter Colt.] Fish Creek forms the N.W. boundary. The soil is generally a highly productive, gravelly loam.
ROME, (p.v.,) upon the Mohawk, S.E. of the center of the town, was incorp. March 26, 1819. It is a halfshire of the co., and it contains the co. buildings, 12 churches, 4 banks, 2 newspaper offices, the Rome Academy, and several manufactories. [The principal manufactories are a plow factory, foundery, planing mill, several sawmills, and the repair shops of the W. R. & C. V. R. R.] It is the S. terminus of the W. R. & C. V. R. R. and of the Black River Canal, and is an important station upon the Central R. R. and the Erie Canal. Pop. 7,083.
WEST ROME is a thickly settled suburb just W. of the limits of Rome.
STANWIX, (p.v.,) a canal village, contains about 15 houses.
GREENS CORNERS is a station on the Central R. R., near the S.W. corner.
RIDGE MILLS, near the center, contains 15 dwellings.
NORTH ROME is a hamlet.
The first settlement was made at the "Carrying Place," before the French War of 1755. [The first settlers came in at an early period, but their names are unkown. John Roof and _____ Brodock were engaged in the carrying trade at this place in 1760. The former was first store and inn keeper. Jedediah Phelps, John Barnard, George and Henry Huntington, Joshua Hathaway, Dr. Stephen White, Roswell Fellows, Matthew Brown, sen. and jun., Seth Ranney, David Brown, Ebenezer, Daniel W., and Thomas Wright, Thomas Selden, Solomon and John Williams, Peter Colt, Willliam Colbrath, Abijah and Clark Putnam, Caleb Reynolds, Rufus Easton, Thomas Gilbert, Moses Fish, Stephen Lampman, Jeremiah Steves, and John Niles were early setters. --Jones's Annals, p. 372. The first birth was in the family of John Roof, Aug. 28, 1769. The first sawmill was erected in 1758, and the first gristmill in 1795. A State Arsenal was erected here in 1808, on the present site of St. Peter's Church. The U. S. erected an arsenal and workshop a little W. of the village, in 1813, under the direction of Major James Dalliba. It is still owned by the General Government, but is not in use. In 1784, Gen. Washington came thus far on a tour of business and pleasure. He, in company with Geo. Clinton, owned a tract of land in this co. of about 2,000 acres, comprising a part of Coxborough and Carolina Townships in the town of Westmoreland.]
The subsequent history of the place is full of incidents of general interest. [Fort Williams, on the Mohawk, and Fort Bull, on Wood Creek, were built on the line between Albany and Oswego about 1725. Fort Bull was surprised by M. De Lery and a party of French and Indians, numbering 362 men, March 27, 1756. The English lost the fort and all the stores which it contained, and 90 men. Forts Williams and Craven, located on the Mohawk, just below Rome, were destroyed by Gen. Webb in 1756, after the reduction of Oswego by the French.
Fort Stanwix was begun July 23, 1758, by Brigadier Gen. John Stanwix, of the royal army. It was a square work, with bastions at the corners, and stood a few rods S. of the present park in the village. It was of earth and timber, surrounded by a ditch and mounted with heavy cannon. In June, 1776, Col. Dayton took possession of it and named it Fort Schuyler. It was besieged in 1777 by St. Leger. Within the last few years the ground upon which the fort stood has been leveled; and not a vestige of it now remains. Fort Newport was a small square fort on Wood Creek, built in the French War. An octagonal blockhouse was built about 1795, during the alarm from Western Indian wars.]
The first church (Cong.) was formed Sept.
5, 1800. [The census reports 17 churches; 5 Calvinist Methodist,
2 Baptist, 2 Methodist Episcopal, 2 Presbyterian, 2 Roman Catholic, Evengelical
Luthern, German Methodist, Protestant E., and Universalist.]
SANGERFIELD -- [Named from Jedediah Sanger the pioneer of New Hartford, who gave 50 acres of land to the first church. This town is No. 20 of the Chenango 20 Townships, and together with No. 18 and part of 19, was purchased in 1790-91 by Michael Myers, J. Sanger, and John J. Morgan, for 3 shillings 3 pence per acre. Much of it was settled under perpetual leases.] was formed from Paris, March 5, 1795. Bridgewater was taken off in 1797. It was transferred from Chenango to Oneida co. April 4, 1804. It is the W. town on the S. line of the co. Its surface is a moderately hilly upland, 700 to 800 ft. above the Mohawk at Utica. The streams are small, and flow N. to the Mohawk and S. to Chenango River. The soil in the valleys is a rich alluvium, and on the hills a gravelly loam.
WATERVILLE, (p.v.,) [Called by the Indians Ska-na-wig, "Large Swamp."] near the N. border, contains 4 churches, a bank, an academy, a newspaper office, a saw and grist mill, distillery, and 1,109 inhabitants.
SANGERFIELD CENTER (Sangerfield p.o.) contains a church and 30 houses.
STOCKWELL SETTLEMENT, in the S. part, about 20 houses.
The first settlement was commenced by Zerah Phelps, from Mass., in 1791. [_____ Hale and wife, and Nathan Gurney, came in in 1792; and Benj. White, Phineas Owen, Sylvanus Dyer, Asahel Bellows, Nathaniel Ford, Henry Knowlton, Jonathan Stratton, _____ Clark, Col. David Norton, and about 30 others, in 1794. The first birth was that of a daughter of Z. Phelps, in 1792; the first marriage, that of Sylvanus Dyer and Hannah Norton; and the first death, that of Sybil Knowlton. Polly Dyer taught the first school; and Justus and Ebenezer Hale kept the first inn and store. The first store in Waterville was kept by Sylvanus Dyer, in 1799.]
There are now 7 churches in town. [2 Congregational, Methodist Episcopal, Protestant E., Presbyterian, and Roman Catholic.]
TRENTON -- was formed from Schuyler, (Herkimer co.,) March 24, 1797. It lies upon the W. bank of West Canada Creek, near the center of the E. border of the co. The surface rises from the creek to the height of 400 to 600 feet; and from the summits it spreads out into an upland broken by ridges of drift. Cincinnati Creek flows through the N. part, and Nine Mile Creek through the S. part. The soil is a sandy and clayey loam, best adapted to grazing.
The celebrated Trenton Falls, upon West Canada Creek, are within the limits of this town. [This favorite place of resort was first brought to public notice by John Sherman, proprietor of the first public hotel for visitors, erected in 1822. The falls are less interesting from the volume of water and height of all than for the peculiar wildness of the surrounding scenery. The ravine, through which the stream flows is worn through the Trenton limestone to the depth of 70 to 200 ft. The sides are nearly perpendicular; and the water descends by 5 distinct cascades a total depth of 200 ft. in the space of half a mile. The Indian names Ka-na-ta, "dark brown water," and Kuy-a-ho-ra, "slanting water," have been applied to this place. Trenton Village was called One-ti-a-dah-que, "in the bone."]
TRENTON, (p.v.) [Incorp. April 19, 1819, as "Oldenbarneveltt," and changed April 26, 1833, to its present name. Its first name was given by Boon, in memory of a Dutch patriot and statesman who perished on the scaffold in 1619, aged 82. --Jones's Oneida. p. 449.] upon Cincinnati Creek, at the mouth of Steuben Creek, contains 3 churches and 50 houses.
TRENTON FALLS, (p.v.,) a short distance below the Falls, contains a church, gristmill, sawmill, and 20 houses.
SOUTH TRENTON, (p.v.,) upon the old Utica turnpike, contains 2 churches and 30 houses.
HOLLAND PATENT, (p.v.,) [Named from Henry, Lord Holland, patentee of 20,000 acres, principally in this town. He sold to Seth and Horace Johnson and Andrew Cragie.] in the W. part of the town, is a station upon the B. R. & U. R. R. It contains 6 churches, the Holland Patent Academy, and 353 inhabitants.
PROSPECT, (p.v.,) on the West Canada Creek, above the Falls, contains 2 churches, Prospect Academy, an extensive sawmill, a tannery, and 60 houses.
STITTSVILLE, (p.v.,) on the line of Marcy, in the S.W. corner of the town, contains a church, cotton factory, sawmill, tannery, and about 40 houses. It is a station upon the B. R. & U. R. R.
Settlement was commenced in 1793, by Gerrit Boon, from Holland. [Boon was an enterprising pioneer and agent of the Holland Land Company, the same that purchased in Western New York. Alone, or with Le Roy, Baynard, McEvers, and Busti, he purchased in trust for that company 46,057 acres of Outhoundt's Patent, 6,026 of Steuben's Patent, 1,200 of Machin's Patent, and 23,609 of Servis's Patent. The last named, lying mostly in this town, was granted in 1768 to Peter Servis and 24 others for the benefit of Sir William Johnson. This tract was conveyed by the trustees above named to the Holland Company in 1801.
Among the other early settlers were Col. Adam G. Mappa, Dr. Fr. A. Vanderkemp, Judge John Storrs, Col. Robert Hicks, Peter Schuyler, John P. Little, Cheney and John Garrett, William Rollo, Col. Thomas Hicks, Edward Hughes, and Hugh Thomas. Boon returned to Holland, where he died many years after. The first child born was Adam Parker, in 1796; the first marriage, that of Jacob Joyce and Widow Peck; and the first death, that of _____ Nelson, in 1795.]
The first church (Presb.) was formed soon
after 1793; Rev. _____ Fish was the first pastor. [The census reports
15 churches; 4 Methodist Episcopal, 3 Baptist, 2 Presbyterian, (O.S.,)
Baptist, Congregational, Calvin Methodist, Protestant E., Union, and Unitarian.]
UTICA -- [The Indians called the locality Ya-nun-da-da-sis, or U-nun-da-ga-ges, "around the hill." After an old stockade, built in early times, was razed, it was called Teva-dah-ah-to-da-gue, "ruin of fort."] was incorp. as a village April 3, 1798. It was formed as a town, from Whitestown, April 1817, and was incorp. as a city Feb. 13, 1832. It lies upon the S. bank of the Mohawk, on the E. border of the co.
A wide intervale extends along the river; and from it the surface rises in gradual slopes toward the S.W. It lies upon the Erie Canal, and is the N. terminus of the Chenango Canal. It is an important station upon the N.Y. C. R. R., and the S. terminus of the B. R. & U. R. R. It is the center of one of the best agricultural sections of the State; and its trade is extensive.
It is largely engaged in manufactures, among which are cotton and woolen goods, millstones, screws, musical instruments, telegraphic apparatus, and a great variety of other articles. [The Eagle Mills give employment to 120 hands, and produce 1,500,000 yards of cotton cloth annually.
The Utica Steam Cotton Mills employ 330 hands, and produce 1,100 yds. of cotton cloth daily.
The Utica Woolen Mills employ 180 hands, and use 350,000 lbs. of wool in the manufacture of cassimeres annually.
The Utica Steam Woolen Co. gives employment to 250 hands, and uses 1,800 lbs. of wool per day.
The Utica Screw Manufacturing Co. employs 50 hands, and turns out goods to the amount of $60,000 annually.
The Utica Millstone Manufactory and Plaster Mills give employment to 50 men, and turn out $60,000 woth of products annually.
The city also contains extensive manufactories of starch, flour, clothing, organs, pianos, castings, machinery, stone ware, fire brick, carpets, oilcloths, leather, lumber, beer, and cigars.]
The City Hall is a fine, large brick building on Genesee St., S. of the canal. It contains a large public hall, common council room, and rooms for the several city officers.
The Public Schools are under the charge of a Superintendent and Board of Education. They are graded, and include all departments from the primary to a thorough academic course. They employ 45 teachers, --6 male and 39 females. The whole number of children between the ages of 4 and 21 is 8,000, of which 3,226, or 40 per cent., attend school during some portion of the year. The total expenses of the schools for 1858 were $15,546.82. The number of volumes in the district libraries is 3,018.
The Utica Academy, long an independent school, now constitutes the High School of the public school system of the city.
The Utica Female Academy is a flourishing institution, situated between Washington St. and Broadway, near Genessee St. It was founded in 1837, and its property is valued at $25,000.
The Academy of the Assumption is under the care of the Brothers of the Christian Schools.
The State Lunatic Asylum is located upon a large lot on an eminence near the W. line of the city. It receives insane persons subject to co. charge, where there is a reasonable prospect of relief, and such others as its accommodations will admit. Until recently it has received insane convicts; but this class will hereafter be sent to the asylum bult for that purpose at Auburn. The average number of inmates during the last 16 years has been 381 annually.
[An asylum of this kind was recommended by the Governor in 1830, and was annually urged by its friends, until an act was passed, March 10, 1836, appointing 3 commissioners to purchase a site not exceeding $10,000 in value, and to contract for building. N. Dayton, C. McVean, and R. Withers were appointed; and in 1837 a farm of 130 acres was bought at the joint expense of the State and the citizens of Utica, ($6,300 of $16,300,) and in that year William Clarke, Francis E. Spinner, and Elam Lynds were appointed commissioners to erect buildings.
The first plan (prepared by Clarke) embraced 4 buildings, each 550 feet long, facing outward, connected by open verandas, and inclosing a court of about 13 acres. The main building was erected and foundations were laid, when the plan was reduced and attention given to finishing the main building. By act of April 7, 1842, the asylum was put in charge of 9 managers, appointed for a term of 3 years each by the Gov. and Senate, a majority of whom must reside within 5 miles of the asylum. Dr. Amariah Brigham was chosen Superintendent, and upon his death (Sept. 8, 1849) Dr. Nathan D. Benedict succeeded. The present Superintendent is Dr. John P. Gray, who was appointed in 1853.
The building was patially destroyed by a fire set by one of the inmates July 14, 1857. The walls remained standing, and the premises have been refitted without interruption of operations, and with improvements far exceeding in safety and convenience those that were destroyed. The sum of $68,742 was granted in 1858 to rebuild the premises; and the labor is now nearly completed. The buildings are well supplied with water and gas, and have ample fixtures for the extinguishment of fires in future, including steam force pumps, ample reservoirs of water, and pipes for filling the attic and upper rooms with steam. The asylum has shops and gardens for the employment of such as prefer it, and various amusements, -- fairs, festivals, musical and theatrical entertainments, books, pictures, innocent games, and such other modes of occupation as are found to exert a salutary influence upon the "mind diseased." The Opal, a monthly magazine, is edited and printed at the asylum by its inmates; and the American Journal of Insanity, a quarterly journal, is conducted by its officers.
Of the 5,516 patients received between Jan 16, 1843 up to Dec. 1, 1858, 4,896 were discharged, of whom 2,226 recovered, 801 were improved, and 1,194 were unimproved; 636 had died, and 39 were not insane. Great success attends the treatment in most cases when received at an early stage; but when the disease has continued a year or more the chances of recovery rapidly diminish, and in a few years cease altogether. The asylum is not designed as a hospital for incurables; and when the prospects of recovery or improvement cease, it is its general customs to return patients to their friends or to local institutions of support.
Of those admitted in the year ending Nov. 30, 1858, 172 were males and 161 females; 23 were between 10 and 20; 91 between 20 and 30; 108 between 30 and 40; 62 between 40 and 50; 36 between 50 and 60; and 11 between 60 and 70. 98 males and 87 females were married; 76 males and 64 females were single; 6 were widowers and 10 widows; 17 had received academic and 239 a common school education; 43 could only read and write; 12 could read but not write; and 11 were entirely without education. 296 had laborious, and 25 professional and literary employments; 8 were in trade, and 4 had no occupation.
210 were natives of New York; 44 of Ireland; 19 of England; 16 of Germany; 6 of Conn.; 4 each of Canada, Scotland, France, Penn., Vt., and Mass.; 3 each of N. H. and Wales; 2 each of Maine and Switzerland; and 1 each of R.I., Ohio, Ill., and Sweden. The principal causes were, so far as ascertained, ill health, 48; hereditary, 28; predisposed, 22; intemperance and vice, 20; religious excitement, 19; excessive labor and anxiety, 17; vicious indulgences and domestic trouble, each 15; business perplexities, 12; menstrual irregularities, 11; and puerperal fever, and excessive labor and exposure, each 10.]
Besides the foregoing institutions, there are in the city 10 private schools, 5 banks, and 24 churches. [4 Baptists, 3 Methodist Episcopal 3 Protestant E., 3 Roman Catholic, 2 Presbyterian, Evangical, Evangelical Lutheran, Jewish, Calvinist Methodist, Ref. Prot. D., German Methodist, Weslyan Methodist, O.S. Baptist, and Universalist.]
The site of the city is included in a colonial grant of 1734, styled Cosby's Manor. Settlement began soon after the Revolution; and in 1787 there were 3 log huts at this place. [Fort Schuyler at this place was built in 1758, and named from Co. Peter, an uncle of Gen. Philip Schuyler. It was a stockaded work, and stood between Main and Mohawk Streets below Second Street. A blockhouse was built before the close of the Revolution of the site of the present depot.
Among the early settlers were Uriah Alverson, Philip Morey, Francis Foster, Stephen Potter, Joseph Ballou, Jason Parker, John Cunningham, Jacob Chrestman, and Matthew Hubbell. The first store and inn were kept by John Post, in 1790, on the N. corner of Genessee and Whitesboro' Streets. Post had been a dealer among the Indians, and purchased large quantities of ginseng. Some years after, he ran 3 "stage boats" for passengers to Schenectady.
In 1804, Parker & Stephens received a grant of the sole right of running a stage to Canandaigua twice every week between May and October. Mails were extended from Canajoharie to this place in 1793, the inhabitants along the route paying the expense. Bryan Johnson, in 1797, commenced purchasing produce for cash, and began a business that had been mostly monopolized by the Kanes of Canajoharie. The latter soon removed to Utica; and the spirited rivalry of these men, and others who soon joined in ti, gave a wide reputation to the place as a market town. John C. Devereux, Watts Shearman, John Bissell, and Daniel Thomas were also early merchants. Nathan Williams, Erastus Clark, Francis A. Bloodgood, and Joseph Kirkland were early lawyers.]
The construction of the Seneca Turnpike and of a bridge gave the first impulse to its growth; and the Erie Canal in a few years doubled its business and population. Although the city has experienced disasters, its general growth in wealth and numbers has been steadily forward, and its geographical position, lines of communication, and natural advantages are guarantees of its future increase.
VERNON -- was formed from Westmoreland and Augusta, Feb. 17, 1802. A part of Stockbridge (Madison co.) was taken off in 1836. It lies on the W. border of the co., S. of the center. [The territory of this town was included in the original Oneida Reservation. Among the patents granted in town were Bleecker's South Patent, Bas Chard's Patent of 4,911 acres, Abraham Van Eps and Rev. John Sargent's Patent. The principal Oneida village was called Kan-on-wall-o-hu-le. A small remnent of this once powerful nation of Indians still live in the S.W. part of the town.] Its surface is rolling the mean elevation being about 200 ft. above the Mohawk.
The principal streams are Oneida Creek, forming the W. boundary, and Skanandoa Creek, flowing through the E. part. [Named from the celebrated Oneida chief, and signifying Hemlock, or stream of hemlocks. Alluding to this interpretation of his name, this chief once made this striking remark: -- "I am an aged hemlock. An hundred winters have whistled through my branches. I am dead at the top!"] The soil is a fine quality of gravelly and clay loam, underlaid by limestone, waterlime, and gypsum. Very few towns in the State surpass this in all the elements of fertility. A mineral spring is found a mile N.W. of Vernon Center.
VERNON, (p.v.,) upon Skanandoa Creek, N. of the center, was incorp. April 6, 1827. It contains 2 churches, the Vernon Academy, a private seminary, bank, newspaper office, and tannery. Pop. 330.
VERNON CENTER (p.v.) contains 2 churches and 30 dwellings.
ONEIDA CASTLE, (p.v.,) on the W. line, contains a church, academy, and 337 inhabitants, of whom 275 are in this town.
TURKEY STREET is a thickly populated farming neighborhood.
The first settlements were made in 1794-97. [The first settler was Josiah Bushnell, in 1794. Upon the relinquishment of the Indian title in 1797, a large number of families from Mass. and Conn. came in; and within 2 years every farm in town was taken up. Among the early settlers were families named Hills, Bronson, Wetmore, Holmes, Stone, Gridley, Smith, Bissell, Foot, Goodwin, Frisbie, De Votie, Austin, Stannard, Griswold, Alvord, Thrall, Wilcox, Church, Spencer, Carter, Marshall, Tuttle, Bush, McEwen, Wilcoxson, and Webber, on Bas Chard's loction, around Vernon Center.
Rev. John Sargent, and families named Codner, Marvin, and McEwen, on Sargent's Patent; Skinner, Lawrence, Shedd, Gratton, Deland, Spaulding, Grant, Kellogg, Tryon, Carter, Moore, Simons, Doane, May, Mahan, Page, Ingraham, Crocker, Graves, Soper, Norton, Dix, Vaughan, Wright, Cody, Kelsey, Raymond, Alling, Haseltine, Carpenter, Hungerford, Burley, and Darling, on the "Reservation;" Griffin, Webster, Stone, Hotchkiss, Warren, Youngs, Willard, Langdon, and Neller, in the S.W. part.
Brockway, Upham, Cole, Davis, Blount, Brookins, Day, Frink, Neys, Campbell, Huntington, and Cook, in the N.; and Van Eps, Hubbell, Warner, Pierson, Patten, and Root on the Van Eps Patent. The first death was that of a daughter of Josiah Bushnell, in 1795. _____ Sessions taught the first school, in 1798; A. Van Eps kept the first store, in 1798; and Asahel Gridley built the first gristmill.]
The first religious services were held in
1801. [There are now 8 churches in town; 3 Presbyterian, 2 Methodist
Episcopal, Baptist, Congregational, and Unitarian.]
VERONA -- was formed from Westmoreland, Feb. 17, 1802. It lies on the W. border of the co., near the center. Its surface is generally level, slightly rolling in the E., and marshy in the W. Oneida Lake and Creek form the W. boundary, and Wood Creek the N. boundary. [A royal blockhouse was built at the mouth of this creek about 1722. It was about 8 rods square, on a slight elevation, and surrounded by a ditch.] Several small streams in the town are tributaries to these. The soil is a deep, rich, alluvial loam.
There is a mineral spring in the E. part of
the town. [A hotel and water-cure has been erected for the accommodation
of visitors and patients. The water is nearly saturated with
sulphuretted hydrogen gas, and yielded to Prof. Noyes's analysis
the following ingredients to the gallon: --
Muriate of soda.......................................720 gr.
Lime, with a little magnesia.................... 68 gr.
Sulfate of lime........................................ 60 gr.
The water resembles in many respects that of the Harrowgate Springs in England.]
VERONA (p.v.) contains 2 churches, a tannery, and 30 houses.
DURHAMVILLE, (p.v.,) on the W. border, partly in Madison co., contains 2 churches, a glass factory, foundery, tannery, and 1,034 inhabitants.
VERONA DEPOT, (p.o.,) a station on the N. Y. C. R. R., contains 10 houses.
STATE BRIDGE (p.v.) contains 20 houses.
HIGGINSVILLE (p.v.) 25 houses.
NEW LONDON (p.v.,) in the N. part, 30 houses.
SCONONDOA (p.v.,) in the S. part, on the line of Vernon, 20 houses.
VERONA MILLS (p.v.) 20 houses.
DUNBARTON a glass factory and 20 houses.
STACEYS BASIN 10 houses.
Settlement was commenced in 1792, by George A. Smith. [Smith was 8 days working his way through snow, swamps, and thickets from Westmoreland. Among the early settlers were Asahel Jackson, in 1796, near the blockhouse; La Whitten de Wardenou, at Oak Orchard, on Wood Creek, in 1796 of '97. Among the early settlers in the S. part in 1798 were Brooks, Langdon, Avery, Eames, Bosworth, Pomeroy, Day, Ellis, Fisher, Phelps, Benedict, Loomis, Warren, Tilden, Todd, Skinner, Billington, Wheelan, Robbins, Clark, Bishop, and Brown. The first birth was that of Eva Smith, in 1795; and the first death was that of a child of Wardenou, in 1797, who was buried in its cradle for want of a coffin. --Jones's Oneida Co., p. 671. Asahel Jackson kept the first inn, in 1796. The first saw and grist mills were built for the Indians.]
Rev. Joseph Avery preached the first sermon.
There are now 10 churches in town. [3 Methodist Episcopal, 2 S. D.
Baptist, Presbyterian, Baptist, Friends, Union, and Roman Catholic.]
VIENNA -- [Gen. A. Hamilton, John Lawrence, and John B. Church, under proceedings in chancery, became owners of this town.] was formed from Camden, April 3, 1807, as "Orange." Its name was changed to "Bengal," April 6, 1808, and to Vienna, April 12, 1816. A part of Annsville was taken off in 1823. It lies on the W. border of the co., N. of the center. Its surface, rising from Oneida Lake on the S. border to an elevation of about 100 ft., spreads out into a rolling plateau. The N.W. part is hilly. Wood Creek and Oneida Lake form the S. boundary. Fish Creek forms most of the E. boundary, and unites with Wood Creek before it enters Oneida Lake. The W. branch of Fish Creek forms a part of the N. boundary. The soil is a light, sandy loam, underlaid by clay; in the S.W., along Fish Creek, it is alluvium. Good building sone is quarried in the E. part, and large quantities of bog ore have been raised from the marshes near the lake.
VIENNA, (p.v.,) in the E. part, contains a church and 110 inhabitants.
NORTH BAY, (p.v.) in the S. part, near the lake, contains 2 churches, 3 sawmills, a shingle mill and 25 houses.
McCONNELLSVILLE, (p.v.) in the N. part, on the line of Annsville, contains 20 houses.
ELPIS, a church and 8 houses.
FISH CREEK LANDING contains 20 houses.
WEST VIENNA, (p.v.,) on the lake, 20 houses.
PINE is a hamlet, in the E. part.
The first settleent was commenced near the
close of the last century. [Timothy Halsted, _____ Fisher, _____
Jarvis, Peter Gibbons, Isaac Babcock, Alex. and Jonathan Graves, Eliakim
Stoddard, Allen Nichols, and David Stone were early settlers. The
first birth was that of Polly Blakesley, in 1803; and the first death,
that of Alex. Graves, by an accident in a sawmill, in 1801. Lyman
Mathers taught the first school; William Smith kept the first inn, in 1801.
Ambrose Jones built the first sawmill, in 1801, and William Smith the first
gristmill, about 1804.] There are now 6 churches in town.
WESTERN -- was formed from Steuben, March 10, 1797. Lee was taken off in 1811. It lies in the interior, N. of the center of the co. Its surface is a hilly upland, broken by numerous gulleys worn in the slate by the streams. Mohawk River and Lansing Kill Creek meet near the center and flow S. and S.W. into Rome. The soil in the valleys is alluvium. Stone quarries are worked which have furnished large quantities of stone for the Black River Canal.
WESTERNVILLE (p.v.) contains a church, a tannery, and 287 inhabitants.
NORTH WESTERN (p.v.) contains a church and 15 houses.
HILLSIDE (p.o.) contains 8 houses.
BIG BROOK (p.o.) is a hamlet, near the E. line.
DELTA (p.v.) is in the S.W. corner, mostly in the town of Lee. The first settlement commenced in 1789, by Asa Beckwith and his sons Asa, Reuben, Wolcott, and Lemuel, and Heny Wager. [These settlers, with one exception, continued to reside on their first locations until their deaths. Gen. William Floyd, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, settled here in 1803, and continued a resident until his death in 1821. The leasehold tenure long retarded settlement, and is still a source of dissatisfaction.]
The first church (Bap.) was formed in 1798;
Rev. Stephen Parsons preached occasionally. There are now 6 churches
in town. [3 Methodist Episcopal, Calvin Methodist, Presbyterian,
WESTMORELAND -- was formed from Whitestown, April 10, 1792. A part of Whitestown was annexed March 15, 1798. Verona and part of Vernon were taken off in 1802. It is an interior town, lying S. of the center of the co. Its surface is a rolling upland, with a mean elevation of 150 to 250 ft. above the Mohawk. The streams are mostly small brooks. Iron ore has been obtained in large quantities for the Westmoreland, Lenox, Onondaga, and Paris furnaces. Several quarries of fine building stone have been wrought; and from some of these grindstones were formerly manufactured. The soil is principally a gravelly and clayey loam, adapted to grain raising and pasturage.
HAMPTON, (Westmoreland p.o.,) in the E. part of the town, contains 3 churches, several manufactories, and 400 inhabitants. [The Malleable Iron Works of Smith, Parker, Hallack & Co., at this place, employ 40 hands, and have a capital of $20,000. Buell's Hardware Manufactory has a capital of $30,000, and gives employment to 50 hands.]
LOWELL, (p.v.,) in the N.W. part, contains a church and 25 houses.
HECLA WORKS, (p.v.,) S.W. of the center, contains a large furnace and 16 houses. [These works, engaged in the manufacture of shelf hardware, have a capital of $40,000, and employ 40 hands. A blast furnance established here near the commencement of the century was run 30 years.]
LAIRDSVILLE, (p.v.,) in the S. part, contains a church and 15 houses. [Named from Samuel Laird, an early settler.]
SPENCER SETTLEMENT, on the N. line, and EUREKA, 2 miles S., each contains about 15 houses.
The first settlement was made by James Dean, upon a patent granted to him under an act of May 5, 1786. [The patent names Dean's Creek as Kanaghtarageara, and a small branch of Oriskany Creek, Kan-you-stot-ta. Among the other early settlers were Jonathan Dean, Silas Phelps, Ephraim Blackmer, Nehemiah Jones, Joseph Jones, Joseph Blackmer, jr., and Samuel Laird, -- all of whom located on Dean's Patent.
In 1789, settlements spread rapidly, and John and Nathaniel Townsend, Benjamin Blackmer, John Vaughan, Josiah Stillman, Nathan Loomis, Joshua Green, Josephe Blackmer, sen., Amos Smith, John Morse, Daniel Seely, Elijah Smith, Samuel Starr, Alexander Parkman, and Stephen Brigham located in town. Mr. Dean was an Indian trader, acquired the language of the natives, and exercised much influence over them. He received this grant through a stipulation made by the Indians as a reward for services rendered to their nation. Although greatly drawn to him, these savages upon one occasion came near taking his life to atone for the death of one of their number who was accidentally killed by a Dutchan on the Mohawk. He died Sept. 10, 1823, aged 76 years. --Jones's Oneida, p. 749. A MSS. account of Indian mythology, written by him, is in the State Library.]
The first church (Cong.) was formed Sept.
20, 1792. [The census reports 6 churches in town; 3 Methodist Episcopal,
Baptist, O.S. Baptist, and Friends.]
WHITESTOWN -- [Named from Hugh White, the pioneer settler.] was formed March 7, 1788, and originally included an indefinite amount of territory extending westward, at the present time forming several counties. Steuben, Mexico, Paris, and Westmoreland were taken off in 1792; Augusta in 1798; Utica in 1817; and New Hartford in 1827. It lies upon the S. bank of the Mohawk, a little S.E. of the center of the co.
A broad, flat intervale extends along the Mohawk; and from it the surface rises in gentle slopes about 100 ft. and from the summits spreads out into a rolling upland. Oriskany Creek [Signifying "river of nettles."] flows N.E. through near the center, and Sauquoit Creek through the E. part. The soil is mostly a fine quality of gravelly loam and alluvium, well adapted to grain raising.
WHITESBORO', (Whitestown p.o.,) in the Mohawk Valley, in the S.E. part of the town, was incorp. March 26, 1813. [The first courthouse of Herkimer co. was erected here in 1793. A clerk's office of the Supreme Court of the State was established at this place April 4, 1807.] It contains 4 churches, the Whitestown Seminary, a bank, and several small manufactories. It is a canal and R.R. station. Pop. 953.
ORISKANY, (p.v.,) near the mouth of Oriskany Creek, is a canal village and R.R. station. It contains 5 churches and several extensive manufactories. Population 711. [Oriskany Manufacturing Co., incorp. Feb. 16, 1811, for the manufacture of woolen cloths, was the oldest co. of the kind in the State. It had 8 sets of machinery, and employed 130 hands. The Dexter Manufacturing Co. has 12 sets of machinery, and employed 130 hands. These factories are not now in operation.]
YORKVILLE and NEW YORK MILLS, in the S. part, are manufacturing villages, upon Sauquoit Creek, the former containing about 50 houses and the later 3 churches and 60 houses. [The New York Mills, an extensive manufactory of cotton, has branches at Yorkville, New York Mills, and Upper New York Mills, -- the last named in New Hartford. It has a capital of $200,000.]
WALESVILLE, (p.o.,) COLEMANS MILLS, and PLEASANT VALLEY are hamlets or thickly settled farming neighborhoods.
The first settlement was made by Judge Hugh White and his 5 sons, Daniel C., Joseph, Hugh, jr., Ansel, and Philo, in May, 1784. This was the first settlement in the co., and became the nucleus of civilization for Central, N.Y. [Among the other early settlers were Amos Wetmore, Jonas Platt, George Doolittle, Thomas R. Gold, Reuben Wilcox, Arthur Breese, Enoch Story, Elizur Moseley, Caleb Douglass, William G. Tracy, Gerret Y. Lansing, and Henry R. Storrs. The first child born was Esther White; and the first death, that of Mrs. Blacksley, soon after the first settlement. The first gristmill in the town and co. was built in 1788, by Judge White, Amos Wetmore, and John Beardsley.]
The first church (Presb.) was formed Aug. 20, 1794; the irst settled pastor was Rev. Bethuel Dodd. [There are now 13 churches in town; 3 Presbyterian, 3 Methodist Episcopal, 2 Baptist, 2 Protestant E., Congregational, Calvin Methodist, and Union.]